In the book A=B, the authors point out that while the identity

is provable (by a very simple proof!), it’s not possible to prove the truth or falsity of all such identities. This is because Daniel Richardson proved the following:

Let denote the class of expressions generated by

- The rational numbers, and .
- The variable
- The operations of addition, multiplication, and composition.
- The sine, exponential, and absolute value functions.

Then the problem of deciding whether or not an expression in is identically zero is undecidable. This means as well that the problem of deciding whether or not two expressions are always equal is also undecidable, since this is equivalent to deciding if is identically zero.

A summary of Richardson’s proof (mostly from Richardson’s paper itself) is below.

The proof depends on the MRDP theorem, which says that for any recursively enumerable set , there is a polynomial such that

For all , iff there exist such that .

At the time that Richardson proved his result, the MDRP theorem was not proven. Instead, only the weaker result where is allowed to be an exponential polynomial (i.e., the are allowed to appear as exponents in ) had been proven, and so that’s what he used. I haven’t read Richardson’s proof closely enough to determine if his result can be improved using the full MDRP theorem.

In any case, since there are recursively enumerable sets which are not decidable, we may let be an exponential polynomial such that the problem of deciding, given , whether or not there are such that is undecidable.

Therefore, the problem of deciding, given , whether or not there are *non-negative real numbers* such that

is undecidable.

Now, let be an exponential polynomial which grows very fast (and such that is very large). Then, if is a natural number and there are non-negative reals such that

is less than one, then both and are small. From this last fact, we conclude that each is close to a natural number. Let be the natural number closest to . Then, will be small. But then, because it’s an integer, it will be zero.

Therefore, we have an expression formed from sine and exponential functions (and rational numbers, addition, and multiplication) such that for each , there exist non-negative reals such that iff there exist natural numbers such that (which is an undecidable problem).

By an argument which I won’t reproduce here, we can replace with with the property that for each there exists a real such that iff there exist natural numbers such that . (Notice that now ranges over all reals.) But now, consider the sequence of functions

Each is identically zero iff the corresponding is ever less than zero, which is an undecidable problem.

The reference for Richardson’s paper is: Daniel Richardson, “Some unsolvable problems involving elementary functions of a real variable,” Journal of Symbolic Logic, Volume 33, 1968, pages 514–520

Another reference is: B.F. Caviness, “On canonical forms and simplification,” Journal of the ACM, volume 17, 1970, pages 385–396.

I do not have enough knowledge to follow your work closely, but I find what you are doing very interesting indeed. I see similarity in it to questions I am considering. The fact you are considering the undecidability in an identity that implies orthogonality is of interest and also the fact you are considering irrational numbers.

It looks as though you are not considering field variables but am I right in believing that under the Field Axioms, formulae proposing the existence of non-rational numbers are undecidable due to combined effects of Soundness and Completeness Theorems? If so, you might find this an interesting connection to your work.

If you are interested in the origins of indeterminacy in Quantum Mechanics, read my newly finished paper titled:

“The Mathematical Undecidability within Quantum Physics: The Origin of Indeterminacy and Mechanism of Decision at Measurement”

To get a copy click on the following link:

Click to access undecidability-in-qm_1034.pdf